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Testing equipment maintenance (a)

Published:2013-07-11 11:37:53[Close]

Inspection of any instrument, regardless of how advanced the design, perfection, in the course can not be avoided due to various reasons, resulting in failure of one kind or another, but the failure rate of the instrument is different. In order to ensure the normal operation of the instrument, the instrument normal maintenance and prompt repairs are very important. Due to space limitations, this chapter only the characteristics of medical testing equipment and maintenance requirements, equipment maintenance should have the conditions, equipment failure of the law, types and causes of equipment maintenance procedures and common methods commonly used medical laboratory instrument checks and other electronic devices content to do a brief introduction. Section of Medical Laboratory Instrument characteristics and maintenance requirements one, the characteristics of medical testing equipment testing equipment for medical diagnosis, disease research, and drug analysis of modern laboratory equipment, and its main features are as follows: 1. Medical testing equipment and more complex structure is a light, machine, electricity in one instrument, using a wide variety of devices. Especially with the increased degree of automation equipment and instrument miniaturization growing function of the instrument, a variety of automatic detection, automatic control functions increase, the instrument is more compact, more complex structure. 2. Technical field involved extensive medical testing equipment often involves optical, mechanical, electronics, computers, materials, sensors, biochemistry, radiology and other technical fields, is a multi-disciplinary technical mutual penetration and combination product. 3. Advanced technology and medical laboratory equipment always follow the forefront of all relevant disciplines. Development of electronic technology, computer applications, the application of new materials, new devices, new analytical methods in medical testing equipment and so reflected. 4. High precision inspection instruments specifically medicine is used to measure the presence of certain substances, composition, structure and properties, and gives qualitative or quantitative analysis results, it requires very high accuracy. Medical testing equipment and more is a precision instrument. 5. On environmental requirements for medical testing equipment with the above characteristics, as well as some of the key components of the special nature of the decision instrument for demanding environmental conditions. Second, medical laboratory equipment maintenance equipment maintenance work is intended to reduce or avoid the occurrence of accidental failure, delay inevitability occurrence of failure and ensure the stability and reliability of its performance. Instrument maintenance work is a long-term work throughout the process and must therefore be based on the characteristics of the equipment, structure and use of the process, and for the failure-prone areas, develop specific maintenance measures, by the person responsible for the implementation. 1, the general maintenance of general maintenance work included are those that have in common that almost all instruments are required to note that the main problem are the following: ⑴ instrument grounding: Grounding problems in addition to the instrument's performance, reliable sex outside influence, but also on the user's personal safety at stake, so all access to electricity grid instrument must be connected to a reliable ground. ⑵ supply voltage: Since relatively large mains voltage fluctuations, often beyond the extent required to ensure the stability of the power supply must be equipped with AC power supply. Demanding the best instrument equipped with a separate power supply. It should also be noted that the plug wire connection should be a good time to refrain from using the wrong jack position, resulting in damage to the instrument. ⑶ instrument working environment: for sophisticated detection equipment performance, reliability, measurement results, and life has a significant impact, for which it has the following requirements: ① dust: the instrument in a variety of optical components, and some switches, contacts, etc., should be kept clean. However, due to high precision optical components, so the cleaning method, cleaning fluids, etc. have special requirements, need to be carefully read before doing cleaning equipment maintenance instructions, should not act in haste, in order to avoid scratches, damage the optical surface. ② proof: the instrument optics, optoelectronic components, electronic components and other damp, easy to mold, damage, it is necessary to conduct regular inspections, regular, timely replacement of desiccant; unused for long periods should periodically power power to chase away moisture to moisture purposes. ③ heat: testing equipment generally require work and the need for proper storage environment, small temperature fluctuations and therefore are generally equipped with a temperature regulator (air conditioning), usually in order to maintain the temperature at 20 - 25 ℃ most appropriate; also Requirements away from heat and direct sunlight. ④ shock: Vibration testing equipment will not only affect the performance and measurement results, but also cause some damage to precision components, therefore, requires the instrument to be placed away from the epicenter of the cement bench or vibration table. ⑤ corrosion: the instrument during use and storage, avoid contact with acid and other corrosive gas and liquid environments, in order to avoid erosion and damage to various components. These are the general maintenance of the device, the main contents, plus all the instruments outside the shutdown is disabled, to shut off the switchboard, and unplug the power cord, to ensure safety. 2, special maintenance work This section is mainly for testing purposes with the characteristics of the instrument, because each has its own testing equipment characteristics, here only some typical representative aspects. ⑴ photoelectric conversion element, such as optical power, photoelectric cells, photomultiplier tubes, etc. should be working in the store and the dark, because they are subject to strong light and easy to aging, shortened life, sensitivity is reduced, the situation is serious and even cause damage to these components . ⑵ testing equipment in use and storage process should prevent contamination. If the environment will affect the pH or acidity of the measurement results; doing multi-sample measurements, the sample container after each use should immediately rinse. In addition, stray magnetic fields on the current impact is a generalized pollution. ⑶ If the instrument has scaled battery, it is best checked once every six months, such as the voltage does not match the requirements are to be replaced, otherwise it will affect the measurement accuracy. ⑷ various measuring membrane electrode when used to regularly rinse, and regular cleaning, long-term when not in use, remove the electrode should be kept immersed to prevent the electrode dry, performance deteriorated. ⑸ galvanometer indicator in the instrument used as the detection more, but it is extremely afraid by the earthquake, so after each use, especially in the process of moving the instrument, it was to be short-circuited. ⑹ instrument mechanical transmission friction surface between the activities declared regular cleaning, lubricating, in order to delay or reduce the wear resistance. ⑺ testing instruments are generally quantitative detection equipment, its accuracy should be guaranteed, therefore requiring regular inspection by the relevant provisions of the correction. Similarly, in the instrument after repair, it should be qualified by the test before reuse. In addition, there are many other special instrument maintenance content, such as the use made of plexiglass components should avoid contact with organic solvents; gas chromatograph is required to avoid the use of flammable gas, and the hydrogen source should be away from fire sources. Often these contents in the instrument's manual to explain in detail, the person responsible for maintenance work should carefully read the instructions in the content, in order to carry out proper maintenance. Section of Medical Laboratory equipment maintenance should have the condition medical laboratory equipment maintenance should have the condition of three aspects, as described below. First, the maintenance requirements of a quality of personnel, has a good work style and psychological quality medical laboratory equipment maintenance is a highly technical work, maintenance personnel must have a studious and assiduously spirit, and develop multi-observation, more hands, more analysis, more records, more than summarize the good habit to continue to accumulate experience improve maintenance standards. Also maintenance staff should also have good psychological quality, and not be intimidated by the difficulties, to overcome difficulties, bold and cautious. 2, has a wealth of knowledge testing equipment maintenance personnel require a relatively broad range of knowledge, especially with modern testing equipment precision, complexity increases, requiring knowledge more widely, and gradually deepened. Maintenance of medical laboratory equipment normally should generally have the following knowledge: ⑴ basic electrical, electronic circuits, medical laboratory, optical and mechanical basis of such knowledge. ⑵ the principle of medical testing equipment. ⑶ micro-computer technology. ⑷ electronic equipment reliability knowledge. ⑸ electronic equipment structural design knowledge. ⑹ measurement test of knowledge. 3, the maintenance staff of the basic skills ⑴ skilled welding technology: skilled welding generally refers to an object can be used flexibly according to different welding welding tools and welding methods. Ensure that neither damage components, and make spot weld, smooth, does not appear Weld. ⑵ can master all the basic components of the performance and test methods: testing equipment not only extensive use of various types of resistors, capacitors, inductors, semiconductor devices, integrated circuit, optoelectronic devices, relays, motors, pumps, meters, etc. components, also uses a variety of sensors, electrodes, microprocessors, displays and optical devices, etc., to fix the instrument, these components must be familiar with the performance and test methods. ⑶ proficiency test equipment used to test the performance of the machine. ⑷ schematic with skilled reading ability and the ability of anti-read printed territory: to have the instrument manual, circuit schematic diagram of the instrument, first understand the whole principle and block diagram, press diagram guidelines to analyze each part of the specific circuits. Proficiency in reading schematics, and according to circuit diagrams, control-kind find all test points and the corresponding components, maintenance work can be carried out smoothly. In the repair, often encountered no case of manual and other materials, which need to be based on physical draw electrical schematics to repair confidence. This process can take two steps: first, based on the physical location and connection draw mutual entity assembly drawings, assembly drawings and then finishing the entity draw circuit diagrams. It is very difficult to master maintenance staff as a skill, but is very important to improve the level of service a clearance. Mastered this skill can face physical cabling, a clear mind to check analysis and processing failures tend to be more effective. ⑸ can utilize various fault inspection methods: equipment failure causes and corrupted programs vary widely. Repair, in order to find fault, you can use different methods, using different screening procedures, so as to find out the root cause of failure as the goal, on the same doctors to diagnose and treat disease, the actual maintenance, repairer of work experience, knowledge horizontal and flexible inspection methods using the ability, will play a decisive impact, the stronger, the higher the efficiency. The capabilities. Without the slightest practice should be carefully observed in practical work, careful analysis of the constantly sum up experience. ⑹ able to master the basic operations: Medical testing equipment often includes precision machinery, electronics, computer, sensors and other technical content, so in addition to understand the basic principles of maintenance of equipment outside, but also master the optical and precision machinery parts installation and removal and cleaning, refueling, adjust other items of basic skills. In addition, the instrument machine use, operation, and some precautions should also be mastered in order to avoid human error. ⑺ should have some knowledge of the maintenance of security: maintenance of security includes two aspects: First, maintenance personnel of its own security, a good operating practices and anti-shock and other security measures. Second, the safety equipment, maintenance equipment is one of the most basic requirement is to ensure that no further damage to the device or to expand the scope of failure. The so-called bold but cautious, refers neither to be intimidated by the difficulty of failure, but also a careful analysis to understand the principle, reasonable, proper use and maintenance tools and the use of appropriate methods for inspection, to prevent rash. ⑻ require good observation, actual production, analysis and ability to record and summarize: In the maintenance, requires a keen observation, sometimes in order to prove some kind of inference also requires a simulation experiment design and production capabilities. Records and summary is a good habit, maintenance personnel not to be found in a failure as a final goal, but to start the repair process for experience and explore new ideas in order to achieve analogy, the effect of giving top priority to continuously improve maintenance capabilities. Second, the maintenance tools and test equipment ① a small portfolio tool: If the soldering iron, tweezers, scissors, screwdrivers, etc. ② Mechanical installation tools: medium and small screwdriver, activities wrench, vise, hand drill, etc., for disassembly, assembly equipment various knobs, switches, power transformers and other mechanical linkage. ③ vacuum gauge: used to detect a variety of negative pressure piping. ④ multimeter, megger and capacitive / inductive table: the best selection of high resistance multimeter multimeter. Megger instrument commonly used in insulation checks. ⑤ Oscilloscope: the best selection of high frequency dual trace oscilloscope, conditions should be equipped with high-frequency memory oscilloscope. ⑥ Signal Generator: There are audio, high-frequency, pulse and other types. ⑦ Power supply: an alternative to the corresponding test instrument's internal DC power supply, fault diagnosis. ⑧ variety of spare parts and adapter plate: Regular prepare some common resistors, capacitors, transistors and other components commonly used in integrated circuit, not only can be used to replace the damaged components can also be used to determine the fault alternative method to check, in order to improve work efficiency. Also prepare some mechanical materials, such as all kinds of screws, nuts, washers, solder tablets. For those with a "building block" structure of the equipment, you can remove a cell, and then connect through the adapter plate, which can allow for inspection and testing of more space, to facilitate the work. ⑨ Logic Probe (logical pen), logical folders and logic analyzers, commonly used in digital circuit testing. Third, the technical information technical information including: technical manuals, maintenance manuals, instrumentation diagram, assembly drawings, electrical schematics, printed circuit layout, schedules and other components. These maintenance information can be used as an important reference, it is easy to identify some of the complex and hidden faults, to improve maintenance efficiency. In addition, maintenance personnel should be equipped with the relevant principles of the book and component manuals. And able to collect and collate technical information. 

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